Алименты в сша

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В США порядок выплаты алиментов определяется на уровне штатов. Так, в штате Нью-Йорк их размер рассчитывают от совместного дохода родителей. Алименты платятся до момента, когда ребенку исполнится 21 год. В Германии плательщики алиментов делятся на 11 групп в зависимости от размера доходов. Также величина выплат зависит от возраста ребенка. Алименты платятся до 18 лет или дольше, если ребенок учится в вузе.

Обычно родитель, с которым проживают дети, получает средства, предназначенные для финансовой поддержки детей, от второго родителя. Обязанность оказывать поддержку сохраняется независимо от того, состоят ли родители ребенка в браке.

In the United States, child support is the ongoing obligation for a periodic payment made directly or indirectly by an "obligor" or paying parent or payer to an "obligee" or receiving party or recipient for the financial care and support of children of a relationship or a possibly terminated marriage. The laws governing this kind of obligation vary dramatically state -by-state and tribe-by-tribe among Native Americans.

Алименты в России и США: кто, кому и сколько платит?

In the United States, child support is the ongoing obligation for a periodic payment made directly or indirectly by an "obligor" or paying parent or payer to an "obligee" or receiving party or recipient for the financial care and support of children of a relationship or a possibly terminated marriage. The laws governing this kind of obligation vary dramatically state -by-state and tribe-by-tribe among Native Americans. Each individual state and federally recognized tribe is responsible for developing its own guidelines for determining child support.

Typically the obligor is a non-custodial parent. Typically the obligee is a custodial parent, caregiver or guardian, or a government agency, and does not have to spend the money on the child.

In the U. In addition, where there is joint custody , in which the child has two custodial parents and no non-custodial parents, a custodial parent may be required to pay the other custodial parent. Historically, the right of a child to the support of his or her parents was regulated solely by the separate states, territories, and Indian tribes. The federal government of the United States became involved in providing welfare assistance to impoverished children in through the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program.

Today, the federal child support enforcement program is the responsibility of the Office of Child Support Enforcement , an office of Administration for Children and Families in the Department of Health and Human Services. Federal regulations promulgated pursuant to Title IV-D of the Social Security Act require uniform application of child support guidelines throughout a state, but each state can determine its own method of calculating support. Courts may choose to deviate from this standard calculation in any particular case.

The US has reciprocal agreements with a number of countries regarding recovery of child support and is a party to the Hague Maintenance Convention States follow one of three basic models, or formulas, for calculating a child support obligation: 1 the Incomes Shares model, 2 the Percentage of Income model, or 3 the Melson Formula model. President Gerald R. Although generally favorable, Ford expressed concern about what he saw as excessively "injecting the Federal Government into domestic relations".

Sage , U. Court of Appeals 2nd Cir. The U. The obligee may forgive such debts. Under the United States Constitution Article Four , full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the public acts, records and judicial proceedings of every other state. Courts have used this article to enforce final judgments that have been registered within a state. Normally a judgment must be final before it can be registered. The ""Restatement of Conflict Second , under the topic of Defenses to Recognition and Enforcement, states that a judgment rendered in one state need not be recognized or enforced in a sister state insofar as the judgment remains subject to modification.

A local court is free to recognize or enforce a judgment that remains subject to modification under the local law. Child support orders are considered judgments of this sort. To satisfy full faith and credit, the local law of the state of rendition will be applied to determine whether a judgment is modifiable -- particularly in respect to past and future financial obligations. The act made it a punishable offense for a husband to desert, willfully neglect or refuse to provide for the support and maintenance of his wife in destitute or necessitous circumstances, or for a parent to fail in the same duty to his child less than 16 years of age.

The act sought to improve the enforcement of the duties of support, but it did not take into account payers who fled the jurisdiction. With the increasing mobility of the population, welfare departments had to support the destitute families because the extradition process was inefficient and often unsuccessful.

Criminal enforcement relied upon the obligee state demanding the extradition of the obligor , or for the obligor to surrender. The initiating state would determine if the obligor had a duty of support.

The responding state, having personal jurisdiction over the obligor, would provide notice and a hearing for obligor. After this hearing, the responding court would enforce the support order. In some cases, the responding court only had evidence from the obligor and not have any evidence from the initiating state or the obligee.

The responding court, with only one side represented tended to benefit the obligor. The Commission also provided a second method to obtain redress via civil enforcement. Since every state could both enforce and modify a support order, a new support order could be entered in each state.

Thus, if the father moved from State A to State B to State C to State D, and if the mother continually registered and had the order modified, then there would be four separate and independent support orders. RURESA allowed state courts to modify the original order so long as the court applied its own procedural law and the law of the original state, unless that contravened its own public policy.

In practice, however, this rule created ambiguities concerning whether child support guidelines are procedural or substantive, and if substantive, whether application of that substantive law contravened some public policy. The multiple order issue remained a problem. UIFSA corrected this problem by providing that only one state would possess the power to make or modify child support at any one time "continuing exclusive jurisdiction". The state with continuous exclusive jurisdiction would use its own child support guidelines.

Thus, if the child or either one of the parents remained in the original state, then that state retained jurisdiction and only that state could modify the support order. As of , only a few states had adopted the amendments. In UIFSA was revised to allow implementation of the Hague Maintenance Convention which ensures a uniform policy amongst countries and a way to organize child support issues globally. Critically, orders are recognized and enforced between parties to the convention.

It entered into force on 1 January Over long periods, however, these weekly differences accumulate to material sums. A conflict of laws issue can confront courts. For simplicity, this article uses the model where the mother becomes the parent with custody of the children and the father makes child support payments, with the understanding that this model has become less typical.

For example, a man and a woman marry in West Virginia. During the marriage, the husband and the wife have children. In West Virginia, the husband and the wife divorce. West Virginia issues a divorce decree that gives the wife custody of the children and orders the husband to pay child support. Subsequently, the wife moves to Connecticut with the children. Some witnesses testified that the law most advantageous to the child should govern, others testified that the law where the obligor resides should govern, and still others testified that the law where the child resides should govern.

The Connecticut Legislature anomalously created two registration methods. Both methods allow for a foreign order to be registered in Connecticut. The UIFSA registration method allows the following scenarios: 1 one party remains in the original state, and the other party moves to Connecticut or 2 the mother and father both leave the original state.

If either the mother or father remain in the original state, the original state retains continuous exclusive jurisdiction. The second scenario is that the mother moves to Connecticut, and the father moves to a third state state B , leaving neither party domiciled in the original state.

In the state where a new order is issued, Connecticut or state B would obtain the power to modify the order. This situation produces a race to the courthouse.

The mother wants to register the order in the state with guidelines more favorable to her and the father seeks the opposite.

Under RURESA Connecticut General Statute 46b controls, providing the courts with a conflict of laws rule concerning the enforcement of a foreign matrimonial judgment within Connecticut. It states:. Such foreign matrimonial judgment shall become a judgment of the court of this state where it is filed and shall be enforced and otherwise treated in the same manner as a judgment of a court in this state; provided such foreign matrimonial judgment does not contravene the public policy of the state of Connecticut.

A foreign matrimonial judgment so filed shall have the same effect and may be enforced or satisfied in the same manner as any like judgment of a court of this state and is subject to the same procedures for modifying, altering, amending, vacating, setting aside, staying or suspending said judgment as a judgment of a court of this state; provided, in modifying, altering, amending, setting aside, vacating, staying or suspending any such foreign matrimonial judgment in this state the substantive law of the foreign jurisdiction shall be controlling.

The statute allows courts to modify a foreign judgment using local procedures, applying the substantive law of the foreign jurisdiction, unless that application of the substantive law would contravene Connecticut public policy.

In Burton v. Burton , the Connecticut Supreme Court recognized that 46b governed. In addition, the Court held that the related laws were "substantive" so the foreign law would control. In Evans v. Evans , the Connecticut Appellant Court indirectly addressed the issues and held that it would not disturb an order of the trial court absent an abuse of discretion.

The Appellant Court failed to state explicitly which guidelines the court should apply. In this case the parents married in the District and family moved to Maryland.

The divorced father returned to the District, and the mother and the children remained in Maryland. Non-custodial parents who avoid their child support obligations are sometimes termed deadbeat parents. It is claimed that some of these arrearage cases are due to administrative practices such as imputing income to parents where it does not exist and issuing default orders of support. According to one study [] reasons given for non-payment of support were as follows:.

A custodial parent receiving public assistance, e. The custodial parent must also pursue child support. Any payment is diverted to the welfare program as partial reimbursement. Typically the amount of child support equals or exceeds the assistance grant, allowing the family to leave the cash assistance program potentially remaining eligible for food stamps, etc.

Other provisions of PRWORA require and assist the custodial parent to find employment such as buying new work clothes.

Child support enforcement programs in all 50 states are primarily federally funded. Half of unpaid child support is owed to the government. Sherri Z. Heller, Ed. D, Commissioner of U. Office of Child Support Enforcement stated, "We need to be more aggressive about leveraging older debt owed to the government as an incentive to obtain more reliable payments of current support to families.

This can present a hardship in states whose cost of living is high. However, other jurisdictions adopt different methods—for example, in independent auditors reviewed and audited the Child Support Enforcement Agency of Hawaii. Texas has also conducted an independent audit.

While county reports are the official records, [] states also have their reports. Gerald Council, et al. As of August , at least four states New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and South Carolina do not consistently appoint attorneys in enforcement proceedings.

Мировая практика

Семейное право является областью права, которая занимается вопросами, касающимися семьи и семейных отношений. Отдел нашей практики в области семейного права включает в себя представление клиентов как на стадии переговоров, так и в суде по делам, связанным с насилием в семье обычно с последующим приказом о защите , разводам, отдельным проживанием, проживанием детей после развода и посещением детей, алиментами на детей и на бывших супругов, разделением имущества, насилием в семье, брачными договорами, и судебными процессами по делам о малолетней преступности. Мы принимаем участие во внесудебных переговорах, а также проводим судебные слушания, когда это необходимо. Когда и муж, и жена добровольно соглашаются по всем аспектам развода, включая разделение совместной собственности, проживание и посещение детей, алименты на детей и на бывших супругов, или в состоянии подписать соглашение о раздельном проживании, их развод считается разводом по согласию. Арест за насилие в семье в Нью-Йоркe С другой стороны, когда супруги не могут договориться между собой по всем аспектам развода и раздельного проживания, и требуют, чтобы суд принял соответствующие решения по вышеперечисленным аспектам развода, они вынуждены иметь дело с судебным разводом.

Платят ли алименты в сша

По статистике Федеральной службы судебных приставов России, из 3 миллионов детей, на содержание которых должны выплачиваться алименты, выплаты получают порядка 1 миллиона несовершеннолетних. В чем причины уклонения от исполнения родительского долга у нас и в благополучной на первый взгляд Америке? В начале х годов прошлого века законодательство большинства развитых стран, касающееся алиментных обязательств, приведено в примерное соответствие друг другу. Так, как и в России, в случае развода содержание детей в виде алиментов выплачивается до совершеннолетия ребенка. Согласно Семейному кодексу РФ, размер алиментных выплат устанавливается, как правило, в долях от дохода, получаемого обязанным лицом и количества детей, на содержание которых и перечисляются алименты.

Семейное Право

В США порядок выплаты алиментов определяется на уровне штатов. Так, в штате Нью-Йорк их размер рассчитывают от совместного дохода родителей. Алименты платятся до момента, когда ребенку исполнится 21 год. В Германии плательщики алиментов делятся на 11 групп в зависимости от размера доходов. Также величина выплат зависит от возраста ребенка. Алименты платятся до 18 лет или дольше, если ребенок учится в вузе. Родитель перестает платить алименты, когда ребенку исполняется 16 лет, или продолжает платить до 20 лет, если ребенок учится в университете. Однако суд может уменьшить сумму при наличии других несовершеннолетних детей и иных обстоятельств. Ребенок вправе рассчитывать на выплаты до 18 лет.

Child support in the United States

Правовая система США интересна тем, что там властвует прецедентное право. Есть, конечно, ряд законодательных актов, обязательных для всех штатов. Но и каждый штат вправе издавать свои законы. Кроме того, правотворческой функцией наделены и судебные органы. Важно знать, что в интернете появляется огромное количество мифов, касающихся законов США.

Моя проблема заключается во взыскании алиментов с отца ребенка, являющегося гражданином США и проживающего на территории США соответственно. Он приезжал довольно часто в Россию ранее, до рождения ребенка и по взаимному согласию рожать я поехала в США, но беременность проходила практически в России Санкт-Петербурге.

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